Looking for a specific product?

Make a search for products & suppliers, articles & news.

Finalist: Erlend Lunde Runestad

Erlend Lunde Runestad, 19 år, Trondheim
Skole: NTNU

SHS synthesis and analysis of TiB2 and WB4 using powder XRD and SEM

 

This project is a culmination of several years of extracurricular work with self-propagating high temperature synthesis of metal rich borides. Self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), is a type of chemical reaction that involves a self-sustaining exothermic process. In this study, the reaction between titanium or wolfram and two different allotropes of boron was carried out, to produce titanium diboride and wolfram borides, respectively.

Ti(s)+2B(s) -> TiB2(s)
W(s)+4B(s) -> WB4(s)

The experiments were set up to investigate the validity of the reactions and also the composition and properties of the resulting material. This also includes investigating the difference between reactions carried out with metallic or amorphous boron and also with the use of varying ignition sources. SHS reactions are carried out at very high temperatures. For example, the ignition temperature for an SHS reaction to produce titanium diboride is approximately 1000°C.

Three methods for ignition and heating were used: An oxygen-acetylene torch, an electric muffle furnace, and also an electric arc with wolfram electrodes. In addition to this, two main methods of analysis were used, including powder x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The products of these reactions were mostly porous, except the samples from the electric arc method. Only the reactions with amorphous boron were noted to be self-propagating, as the metallic boron (β-boron) was much less reactive.

The SEM pictures revealed hexagonal TiB2 crystals, and also the presence of hollow hexagonal crystal formations. This means that the sample was porous at both a macroscopic and microscopic level. The XRD analyses proved three major points. Firstly, all three methods and both boron allotropes were able to produce titanium diboride. However, the methods using amorphous boron produced the most pure and uniform samples of titanium diboride, while the metallic boron methods contained many oxide and nitride impurities. Secondly, the methods using metallic boron and electric arc heating seemed to produce different amounts of nitride impurities depending on their exposure to air. This concludes that these reactions should be performed in an inert atmosphere. Lastly, the wolfram tetraboride tests suggested that most of the wolfram did not react and also formed W2B5 instead of WB4.

For future experiments, it could be beneficial to recreate the muffle furnace experiments, to further study the hollow hexagonal crystals created. The hollow crystals could potentially give an extremely porous material with an enormous surface area, which is very beneficial for catalytic purposes.

 

 

 

Related news

Latest news

Untrue rumours about an on-going incident at the Halden Research Reactor in Norway

The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority has become aware that stories about an ongoing incident involving a “meltdown” at the Norwegian Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) reactor situated in Halden are currently ci...

Gulf Notified Body meeting in Manama Bahrain

At the end of January, the GSO (Gulf Standards Organization) arranged the first meeting with the present group of 23 Notified Bodies. These Notified Bodies are authorised by GSO to certify the electrical products as curren...

SMART SYSTEM USES POST OFFICE VEHICLES TO ANALYZE ROADS.

During the spring thaw period in Sweden, many small roads are closed to traffic despite the fact that they are fit for use. The BiFi research project has analysed the roads’ bearing capacity in real time using Internet-con...

Children with poor vitamin B12 status early in life struggle more with tasks, recognition and interpreting feelings

Small children with low levels of vitamin B12 had more difficulties solving cognitive tests, such as the ability to do puzzles, recognize letters and interpret other children’s feelings.

BP Awards Schlumberger Contract for Mad Dog 2 Project

Export Conference 2017: A changing world

Register for this year’s most important conference for Norwegian exporters. We can promise you an interesting and inspirational day!

Meet Elkem Silicon Materials at the Ceramics Expo 2017

Elkem Silicon Metrials invites to meet their team at the Ceramics Expo 2017. This is North America’s largest, free-to-attend exhibition for Ceramic manufacturing and applications.

Event - TechnipFMC at Gastech April 4

Multiple Indian languages on electronic products

The Indian Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) has approved guidelines issued by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) about the display of text in 22 Indian languages on certain electronic devices from 1...